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Hodges in 1856
By James Wimshurst
I have the honor this evening of addressing a few remarks to you upon the subject of influence machines, and the manner in which I propose to treat the subject is to state as shortly as possible, first, the historical portion, and afterward to point out the prominent characteristics of the later and the more commonly known machines. The diagrams upon the screen will assist the eye to the general form of the typical machines, but I fear that want of time will prevent me from explaining each of them.
In 1762 Wilcke described a simple apparatus which produced electrical charges by influence, or induction, and following this the great Italian scientist Alexander Volta in 1775 gave the electrophorus the form which it retains to the present day. This apparatus may be viewed as containing the germ of the principle of all influence machines yet constructed.
Another step in the development was the invention of the doubler by Bennet in 1786. He constructed metal plates which were thickly varnished, and were supported by insulating handles, and which were manipulated so as to increase a small initial charge. It may be better for me to here explain the process of building up an increased charge by electrical influence, for the same principle holds in all of the many forms of influence machines.
This Volta electrophorus, and these three blackboards, will serve for the purpose. I first excite the electrophorus in the usual manner, and you see that it then influences a charge in its top plate; the charge in the resinous compound is known as negative, while the charge induced in its top plate is known as positive. I now show you by this electroscope that these charges are unlike in character. Both charges are, however, small, and Bennet used the following system to increase them.
Let these three boards represent Bennet's three plates. To plate No. 1 he imparted a positive charge, and with it he induced a negative charge in plate No. 2. Then with plate No. 2 he induced a positive charge in plate No. 3. He then placed the plates Nos. 1 and 3 together, by which combination he had two positive charges within practically the same space, and with these two charges he induced a double charge in plate No. 2. This process was continued until the desired degree of increase was obtained. I will not go through the process of actually building up a charge by such means, for it would take more time than I can spare.
1787 Carvallo discovered the very important fact that metal plates when insulated always acquire slight charges of electricity; following up those two important discoveries of Bennet and Carvallo, Nicholson in 1788 constructed an apparatus having two disks of metal insulated and fixed in the same plane. Then by means of a spindle and handle, a third disk, also insulated, was made to revolve near to the two fixed disks, metallic touches being fixed in suitable positions. With this apparatus he found that small residual charges might readily be increased. It is in this simple apparatus that we have the parent of influence machines (see Fig. 1), and as it is now a hundred years since Nicholson described this machine in the Phil. Trans., I think it well worth showing a large sized Nicholson machine at work to-night (see Fig. 11, above).
In 1823 Ronalds described a machine in which the moving disk was attached to and worked by the pendulum of a clock. It was a modification of Nicholson's doubler, and he used it to supply electricity for telegraph working. For some years after these machines were invented no important advance appears to have been made, and I think this may be attributed to the great discoveries in galvanic electricity which were made about the commencement of this century by Galvani and Volta, followed in 1831 to 1857 by the magnificent discoveries of Faraday in electro-magnetism, electro-chemistry, and electro-optics, and no real improvement was made in influence machines till 1860, in which year Varley patented a form of machine shown in Fig. 2. It also was designed for telegraph working.
In 1865 the subject was taken up with vigor in Germany by Toepler, Holtz, and other eminent men. The most prominent of the machines made by them are figured in the diagrams (Figs. 3 to 6), but time will not admit of my giving an explanation of the many points of interest in them; it being my wish to show you at work such of the machines as I may be able, and to make some observations upon them.
In 1866 Bertsch invented a machine, but not of the multiplying type; and in 1867 Sir William Thomson invented the form of machine shown in Fig. 7, which, for the purpose of maintaining a constant potential in a Leyden jar, is exceedingly useful.
The Carre machine was invented in 1868, and in 1880 the Voss machine was introduced, since which time the latter has found a place in many laboratories. It closely resembles the Varley machine in appearance, and the Toepler machine in construction.
In condensing this part of my subject, I have had to omit many prominent names and much interesting subject matter, but I must state that in placing what I have before you, many of my scientific friends have been ready to help and to contribute, and, as an instance of this, I may mention that Prof. Sylvanus P. Thompson at once placed all his literature and even his private notes of reference at my service.
I will now endeavor to point out the more prominent features of the influence machines which I have present, and, in doing so, I must ask a moment's leave from the subject of my lecture to show you a small machine made by that eminent worker Faraday, which, apart from its value as his handiwork, so closely brings us face to face with the imperfect apparatus with which he and others of his day made their valuable researches.
The next machine which I take is a Holtz. It has one plate revolving, the second plate being fixed. The fixed plate, as you see, is so much cut away that it is very liable to breakage. Paper inductors are fixed upon the back of it, while opposite the inductors, and in front of the revolving plate, are combs. To work the machine (1) a specially dry atmosphere is required; (2) an initial charge is necessary; (3) when at work the amount of electricity passing through the terminals is great; (4) the direction of the current is apt to reverse; (5) when the terminals are opened beyond the sparking distance, the excitement rapidly dies away; (6) it does not part with free electricity from either of the terminals singly.
It has no metal on the revolving plates, nor any metal contacts; the electricity is collected by combs which take the place of brushes, and it is the break in the connection of this circuit which supplies a current for external use. On this point I cannot do better than quote an extract from page 339 of Sir William Thomson's "Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism," which runs: "Holtz's now celebrated electric machine, which is closely analogous in principle to Varley's of 1860, is, I believe, a descendant of Nicholson's. Its great power depends upon the abolition by Holtz of metallic carriers and metallic make-and-break-contacts. It differs from Varley's and mine by leaving the inductors to themselves, and using the current in the connecting arc."
In respect to the second form of Holtz machine (Fig. 4) I have very little information, for since it was brought to my notice nearly six years ago I have not been able to find either one of the machines or any person who had seen one. As will be seen by the diagram, it has two disks revolving in opposite directions, it has no metal sectors and no metal contacts. The "connecting arc circuit" is used for the terminal circuit. Altogether I can very well understand and fully appreciate the statement made by Professor Holtz in Uppenborn's Journal of May, 1881, wherein he writes that "for the purpose of demonstration I would rather be without such machines."
The first type of Holtz machine has now in many instances been made up in multiple form, within suitably constructed glass cases, but when so made up, great difficulty has been found in keeping each of the many plates to a like excitement. When differently excited, the one set of plates furnished positive electricity to the comb, while the next set of plates gave negative electricity; as a consequence, no electricity passed the terminal.
To overcome this objection, to dispense with the dangerously cut plates, and also to better neutralize the revolving plate, throughout its whole diameter, I made a large machine having twelve disks 2 ft. 7 in. in diameter, and in it I inserted plain rectangular slips of glass between the disks, which might readily be removed; these slips carried the paper inductors. To keep all the paper inductors on one side of the machine to a like excitement, I connected them together by a metal wire. The machine so made worked splendidly, and your late president, Mr. Spottiswoode, sent on two occasions to take note of my successful modifications. The machine is now ten years old, but still works perfectly. I will show you a smaller sized one at work.
The next machine for observations is the Carre (Fig. 8). It consists essentially or a disk of glass which is free to revolve without touch or friction. At one end of a diameter it moves near to the excited plate of a frictional machine, while at the opposite end of the diameter is a strip of insulting material, opposite which, and also opposite the excited amalgam plate, are combs for conducting the induced charges, and to which the terminals are metallically connected; the machine works well in ordinary atmosphere, and certainly is in many ways to be preferred to the simple frictional machine. In my experiments with it I found that the quantity of electricity might be more than doubled by adding a segment of glass between the amalgam cushions and the revolving plate. The current in this type of machine is constant.
The Voss machine has one fixed plate and one revolving plate. Upon the fixed plate are two inductors, while on the revolving plate are six circular carriers. Two brushes receive the first portions of the induced charges from the carriers, which portions are conveyed to the inductors. The combs collect the remaining portion of the induced charge for use as an outer circuit, while the metal rod with its two brushes neutralizes the plate surface in a line of its diagonal diameter. When at work it supplies a considerable amount of electricity. It is self-exciting in ordinary dry atmosphere. It freely parts with its electricity from either terminal, but when so used the current frequently changes its direction, hence there is no certainty that a full charge has been obtained, nor whether the charge is of positive or negative electricity.
I next come to the type of machine with which I am more closely associated, and I may preface my remarks by adding that the invention sprang solely from my experience gained by constantly using and experimenting with the many electrical machines which I possessed. It was from these I formed a working hypothesis which led me to make my first small machine. It excited itself when new with the first revolution. It so fully satisfied me with its performance that I had four others made, the first of which I presented to this Institution. Its construction is of a simple character. The two disks of glass revolve near to each other and in opposite directions. Each disk carries metallic sectors; each disk has its two brushes supported by metal rods, the rods to the two plates forming an angle of 90 deg. with each other. The external circuit is independent of the brushes, and is formed by the combs and terminals.
The machine is self-exciting under all conditions of atmosphere, owing probably to each plate being influenced by and influencing in turn its neighbor, hence there is the minimum surface for leakage. When excited, the direction of the current never changes; this circumstance is due, probably, to the circuit of the metallic sectors and the make and break contacts always being closed, while the combs and the external circuit are supplemental, and for external use only. The quantity of electricity is very large and the potential high. When suitably arranged, the length of spark produced is equal to nearly the radius of the disk. I have made them from 2 in. to 7 ft. in diameter, with equally satisfactory results. The diagram, Fig. 9, shows the distribution of the electricity upon the plate surfaces when the machine is fully excited. The inner circle of signs corresponds with the electricity upon the front surface of the disk. The two circles of signs between the two black rings refer to the electricity between the disks, while the outer circle of signs corresponds with the electricity upon the outer surface of the back disk. The diagram is the result of experiments which I cannot very well repeat here this evening, but in support of the distribution shown on the diagram, I will show you two disks at work made of a flexible material, which when driven in one direction close together at the top and the bottom, while in the horizontal diameter they are repelled. When driven in the reverse direction, the opposite action takes place.
I have also experimented with the cylindrical form of the machine (see Fig. 10). The first of these I made in 1882, and it is before you. The cylinder gives inferior results to the simple disks, and is more complicated to adjust. You notice I neither use nor recommend vulcanite, and it is perhaps well to caution my hearers against the use of that material for the purpose, for it warps with age, and when left in the daylight it changes and becomes useless.
I have now only to speak of the larger machines. They are in all respects made up with the same plates, sectors, and brushes as were used by me in the first experimental machines, but for convenience sake they are fitted in numbers within a glass case. One machine has eight plates of 2 ft. 4 in. diameter; it has been in the possession of the Institution for about three years. A second, which has been made for this lecture, has twelve disks, each 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The length of spark from it is 135/8 in. (see Fig. 12). During the construction of the machine every care was taken to avoid electrical excitement in any of its parts, and after its completion several friends were present to witness the fitting of the brushes and the first start. When all was ready the terminals were connected to an electroscope, and the handle was moved so slowly that it occupied thirty seconds in moving one-half revolution, and at that point violent excitement appeared.
The machine has now been standing with its handle secured for about eight hours. No excitement is apparent, but still it may not be absolutely inert. Of this each one present must judge, but I will connect it with this electroscope (Figs. 13 and 14), and then move the handle slowly, so that you may see when the excitement commences and judge of its absolutely reliable behavior as an instrument for public demonstration. I may say that I have never, under any condition, found this type of machine to fail in its performance.
I now propose to show you the beautiful appearances of the discharge, and then, in order that you may judge of the relative capabilities of each of these three machines, we will work them all at the same time.
The large frictional machine which is in use for this comparison is so well known by you that a better standard could not be desired.
In conclusion, I may be permitted to say that it is fortunate I had not read the opinions of Sir William Thomson and Professor Holtz, as quoted in the earlier part of my lecture, previous to my own practical experiments. For had I read such opinions from such authorities, I should probably have accepted them without putting them to practical test. As the matter stands, I have done those things which they said I ought not to have done, and I have left undone those which they said I ought to have done, and by so doing I think you must freely admit that I have produced an electric generating machine of great power, and have placed in the hands of the physicist, for the purposes of public demonstration or original research, an instrument more reliable than anything hitherto produced.
Lecture delivered at the Royal Institution, April 27, 1888. For the above and for our illustrations we are indebted to Engineering.
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